A great work just published in The Journal of Extracellular Vesicles from the group of Dr Marcilla.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by the helminths Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica are important modulators of the host immune response, contributing to the establishment of the infection. Monocytes and, in particular, macrophages are major regulators of the inflammatory response and are likely responsible for the phagocytosis of most of the parasite EVs. In this study, we isolated EVs from F. hepatica (FhEVs) and D. dendriticum (DdEVs) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized them by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy and LC-MS/MS, and analyzed the cohort of proteins. The treatment of monocytes/macrophages with FhEVs, DdEVs or EV-depleted fractions from SEC, demonstrated species-specific effects of the EVs. In particular, FhEVs reduce the migratory capacity of monocytes and the analysis of the cytokine profile showed that they induce a mixed M1/M2 response, exerting anti-inflammatory properties in Lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. In contrast, DdEVs do not affect monocyte migration and seem to have pro-inflammatory properties. These results correlate with the differences in the life cycle of both parasites, suggesting different host immune responses. Only F. hepatica migrates to the bile duct through the liver parenchyma, driving the host immune response to heal deep erosions. Furthermore, the proteomic analysis of the macrophages upon FhEV treatment identified several proteins that might be involved in FhEV-macrophage interactions.

Congrats to all authors!

The full article is available at